Название: Pakistan: Fifty Years Of Nationhood Автор: Shahid Javed Burki Издательство: Boulder, CO: Westview Press Год: 1999 Формат: pdf Страниц: 272 Размер: 25,4 mb Язык: English
The nation’s search for stability is traced in this revised and updated introduction to Pakistan’s political, economic, and social development.
Although it achieved independence in 1947, Pakistan still has not succeeded in integrating its diverse peoples into a nation—as its short yet turbulent history vividly demonstrates. New chapters detail political developments since 1991, including the elections of 1993 and 1996. Economic changes, including the financial crisis that led to the fall of Benazir Bhutto’s government in 1996, are given particular attention. Also included is an extensive analysis of the nuclear arms race between India and Pakistan, an issue of global concern.
List of Tables and Illustrations Acknowledgments Introduction
1 BIRTH: AUGUST 14,1947 The Muslims of British India, 2 The Muslims of North-Central Provinces, 5 The Muslims of Punjab and Bengal, 8 The Muslims of the Northeastern Provinces, 10 Pakistan: The Unfinished Task, 12 The Land and Its People, t 2
2 POLITICAL DEVELOPMENT: CONTlNUlNG SEARCH FOR STABILITY The Roots of Diversity, 25 Muhajir and Indigenous Cultures: The Constitution of 1956,28 The Ayub Khan Era, 31 The Yahya Khan Era, 40 The Bhutto Era, 44 The Zia Era, 50 Pakistan’s Military Presidents: A Comparative Analysis, 71 A Series of Failed Administrations, 74
3 ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT: CONTlNUING POSTPONEMENT OF STRUCTURAL CHANGE The Current Structure of the Economy, 97 Recent Economic History, 99 The Role of Politics in Pakistan’s Economy, 100 External Influences on Pakistan’s Economy, 108 The Agricultural Sector, 122 The Industrial Sector, 125 Domestic Resource Mobilization, 134 Pakistan’s Economic Future, 137
4 SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT: MISSED OPPORTUNITIES Education and Development, 142 Health and Development, 152 The Population Problem, 154 Urbanization, 157 Poverty, 158 The Status of Women, 163 Conclusion, 167
5 GOVERNANCE, CORRUPTION, AND DEVELOPMENT: SOME MAJOR OBSTACLES TO GROWTS AND MODERNIZATION Poor Governance, Corruption, and the Fall of Benazir Bhutto’s Second Government, 170 Poor Governance, Corruption, and Its Impact on Development, 176 Culture and the Culture of Corruption, 180 Conclusion, 186
6 FOREIGN RELATIONS: SEARCHING FOR A NEW IDENTITY Initial Foreign Policy Tasks, 192 Relations with India, 193 Relations with Afghanistan, 197 Relations with the United States, 201 Relations with the Third World, 205 Relations with the Muslim World, 206 Development of the Bomb, 208 Terrorism, 21 1 Conclusion, 2 12
7 AN UNCERTAIN FUTURE 215 Pakistan’s Historical Purpose, 215 The Role of Islam in Nation Building, 218 Issues for the Future, 221
Notes Bibliography About the Book and Author Index