Calendars in Antiquity: Empires, States, and SocietiesКНИГИ » ИСТОРИЯ
Автор: Sacha Stern Название: Calendars in Antiquity: Empires, States, and Societies Издательство: Oxford University Press Год: 2012 ISBN: 978-0199589449 Язык: English Формат: pdf Размер: 10,9 mb Страниц: 472
Calendars were at the heart of ancient culture and society, and were far more than just technical, time-keeping devices. In this volume, Stern sheds light on the political context in which ancient calendars were designed and managed. Set and controlled by political rulers, calendars served as expressions of political power, as mechanisms of social control, and sometimes as assertions of political independence, or even of sub-culture and dissidence.
While ancient calendars varied widely, they all shared a common history, evolving on the whole from flexible, lunar calendars to fixed, solar schemes. The Egyptian calendar played an important role in this process, leading most notably to the institution of the Julian calendar in Rome, the forerunner of our modern Gregorian calendar. Stern argues that this common, evolutionary trajectory was not the result of scientific or technical progress. It was rather the result of major political and social changes that transformed the ancient world, with the formation of the great Near Eastern empires and then the Hellenistic and Roman Empires from the first millennium BC to late Antiquity. The institution of standard, fixed calendars served the administrative needs of these great empires but also contributed to their cultural cohesion.